· The intent of this standard is that students will build fluency and experience success as readers while reading aloud and will begin to develop and demonstrate comprehension skills by reading a variety of fiction and poetry selections.
· Students will demonstrate comprehension of story elements in fiction and poetry selections by identifying the character, setting, and topic or main idea.
· Students will continue to learn to relate their prior knowledge to the topic of the text and use this knowledge and information from the text to make and confirm predictions as well as to ask and answer questions.
· Teachers should read a wide range of fiction and nonfiction texts aloud and explain differences between books that tell stories and books that provide information.
· To determine a student’s functional reading level for a specific text consider these word accuracy rates from Virginia’s Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS):
° independent level – 98-100% accuracy, or about two of every 100 words misread; student reads independently with little or no instructional support, and comprehension is strong.
° instructional level – 90-97% accuracy, or three to ten words of every 100 words misread (For preprimer text, instructional level is between 85%-97%.); student reads with modest accuracy and variable fluency and comprehension should be closely monitored.
° frustration level – less than 90% accuracy, or more than ten of every 100 words misread (For preprimer text, frustration level is less than 85%.); student reads with neither accuracy nor fluency, and therefore his or her comprehension will be affected.
· Fluency develops as students have the opportunity to practice reading on their independent reading level.
· The table below presents the results of research on oral reading fluency rates for students at the 90th, 75th and 50th percentiles throughout the school year. These fluency rates are reported as words correct per minute (WCPM) for first-grade students reading first-grade text:
Hasbrouck, J.E., & Tindal, G.A. (2006)
· Prosody refers to the rhythmic and intonational aspect of language, which should be noticeable during oral reading. Prosody contributes to reading fluency and comprehension.
All students should:
· understand that they should use a variety of strategies to assist with comprehension.
· understand that orally read text has a rhythm and expression that helps convey meaning
To be successful with this standard, students are expected to
· preview reading material by looking at the book’s cover and illustrations and by reading titles and headings. (a)
· set a purpose for reading by looking at the illustrations, activating prior knowledge, and predicting the outcome of the selection. (b)
· use knowledge from their own experience to make sense of and talk about a text. (c)
· draw on prior knowledge to make and confirm predictions before, during, and after reading. (d)
· ask and answer simple questions (e.g., who, what, when, where, why, and how) about a selection. (e)
· identify and describe characters, settings, and important events in a story using details. (f)
· use illustrations and details to describe characters, settings, and important events in a story. (f)
· identify who is telling the story at various points in a text. (e, f)
· identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses. (f, i)
· demonstrate comprehension by retelling stories and events orally or in writing, using beginning, middle, and end structure, and demonstrating comprehension of the central message or lesson. (g)
· identify the main idea or theme of a short fiction selection. (h)
· read a wide variety of self-selected and teacher-selected stories and poems aloud. (i)
· use expression and intonation to convey meaning when reading aloud (prosody). (i)
· reread as necessary to confirm and self-correct word recognition and understanding. (i)
· practice reading and rereading familiar stories, poems, and passages at their independent reading level to develop fluency, accuracy, and meaningful expression. (i)